The need to meet the 2002/2004 diesel engine emissions restrictions led to significant engineering changes for every commercial diesel engine offered in the U.S. trucking market. Along with the technical changes, engine makers also took the '02/'04 changeover as an opportunity to simplify designations, eliminate overlap in product coverage and generally clean up years of accumulated model additions and modifications. The result was a full-scale rationalization and reorganization of available model lineups that made even year-old technical literature and specs lists obsolete.

To help you reorient yourself in this new engine landscape, FLEET OWNER has put together a guide to every major diesel engine model now offered for sale in on-road U.S. commercial trucks. Arranged by manufacturer, it offers concise information on engine configuration, displacement, horsepower and torque ranges, and intended applications. Web addresses for additional technical information are also included.

CATERPILLAR

C7

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 441 cu. in./7.2 L

Horsepower: 190-330

Peak torque: 520-860 lb.-ft.

Caterpillar markets its C7 engine line to vocational truck applications, from construction and utility to pickup and delivery, RV and emergency vehicles.

The C7 has the company's HEUI fuel system and a full set of electronic controls with features typically found only on heavy-duty engines. In addition, both front and rear PTO options can be customized to fit a variety of needs.

The entire line uses Caterpillar's Advanced Combustion Emission Reduction technology (ACERT) package to meet current emission rules.

C9

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 537 cu. in./8.8L

Horsepower: 275-400

Peak torque: 1050-1150 lb.-ft.

Caterpillar says the C9 line is designed for vocational applications and regional linehaul fleets that require a responsive, lightweight engine with electronic controls.

The C9 has front and rear PTO capability and offers the combination of mid-supported wet-liners, heavy-duty crankshaft and HEUI fuel system to provide a lightweight yet rugged powerplant for a variety of truck operating needs.

Engines feature ACERT system for emissions compliance.

C11

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 677 cu. in./11.1L

Horsepower: 305-350

Peak torque: 1050-1350 lb.-ft.

The C11 family, which replaces the C10, is designed to meet OTR day cab and vocational tractor and truck needs. According to Caterpillar, the C11-like its bigger brother, the C13 — features a cross-flow head design complete with series turbochargers and variable value actuation. An optional Cat compression brake and rear-mounted PTO can be customized to fit specific applications.

Engines feature ACERT system for emissions compliance.

C13

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 763 cu. in./12.5L

Horsepower: 350-430

Peak torque: 1450-1650 lb.-ft.

Weighing in at just 2,270 lb., the C13 is designed for fleets requiring performance and dependability in a lightweight package. The C13 family, which replaces the C12 line, has moved from a uni-flow cylinder head design to a cross-flow setup, giving it improved breathing ability and better responsiveness, says caterpillar. Like the heavier C15 line, the C13 family also features a higher compression ratio, higher cylinder pressure, and series turbocharger for improved power, performance and fuel economy.

C15

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 928 cu. in./15.2L

Horsepower: 435-625 hp

Peak torque: 1550-2050 lb.-ft.

Caterpillar points out that the C15 can be spec'd with 600-625 hp. as part of its “King of the Hill” package, designed to appeal to owner-operators and heavy hauler fleets. The engine is equipped with series turbochargers, a higher compression ratio, and higher cylinder pressure to produce improved performance, better throttle response and increased fuel economy.

Like all of the company's heavy-duty engines equipped with ACERT technology, Caterpillar says the C15 hass steel single-piece low friction pistons, four-bolt connecting rods and a high-efficiency water pump for improved durability and reliability.

CUMMINS

ISX

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 15L

Horsepower: 385-565

Peak torque: 1450-1850 lb.-ft.

The ISX group of engines, equipped with cooled EGR to meet current and future emission rules, also uses a unique dual overhead cam design to further reduce pollution while improving performance and engine braking ability. Designed into the base engine platform, the Intebrake takes up less space and weighs less than add-on units.

The ISX adds up to 200 lb.-ft. of extra torque in the top two gears via the SmartTorque system, which helps maintain road speed, reduce downshifts, and provides up to 3% improvement in fuel economy.

ISM

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 10.8L

Horsepower: 280-425

Peak torque: 1150-1550 lb.-ft.

The most important feature of the ISM line is its Holset Variable Geometry Turbocharger, which produces quicker throttle response with less turbo “lag,” according to Cummins. For drivers, this means more acceleration power, which can be critical on highway on-ramps, for example. The Holset's infinite adjustment capability provides the exact amount of boost needed at any engine speed, and its patented sliding nozzle design eliminates dozens of moving parts for better reliability and durability.

The Cummins C Brake, developed by Jacobs, is an option on the ISM; it works with the Variable Geometry Turbocharger to deliver an additional 40 braking hp.

ISL

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 8.9L

Horsepower: 310-350

Peak torque: 1050-1250 lb.-ft.

Cummins considers its ISL family to be the ideal “all around” engine for a wide variety of trucking operations, from regional LTL to vocational.

A new High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) fuel system combined with the Holset Variable Geometry Turbocharger enables the ISL to produce torque equal to larger displacement models, providing exceptional power-to-weight characteristics, according to Cummins. In other words, the 8.9L ISL can carry more payload, with performance equal to that of 10L and 11L diesel engines.

ISC

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 8.3L

Horsepower: 240-315

Peak torque: 1660-950 lb.-ft.

The ISC line is also equipped with the HPCR fuel system; with less than one-fourth the number of parts as the previous fuel pump, it is much easier to maintain.

Standard on the ISC is a combination full-flow/bypass oil filter, which increases piston ring and bearing life. Pilot fuel injection and a revised front gear design combine to make the ISC up to 35% quieter than previous models.

According to Cummins, the ISC's integrated electronics improve operating efficiencies of the transmission and the front and rear PTOs.

ISB

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 5.9L

Horsepower: 185-275

Peak torque: 420-660 lb.-ft.

The ISB family is based on the B-Series but features the Interact System-a new design platform that combines improved electronic engine controls with high-pressure fuel injection and high-strength components for a more reliable and durable product

The ISB offers more horsepower and torque, with better response off the line. It's made to run longer on less fuel (up to 15% longer than the B Series), and with extended maintenance intervals (oil and filter changes every 15,000-mi.)

BG/CG/LG

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 5.9, 8.3L

Horsepower: 195-320

Peak torque: 420-1000 lb.-ft.

These alternative-fuel engines are the product of a 50/50 partnership between Cummins and Westport Innovations. Marketed under the brand name Cummins Westport, they meld a lean-burn, spark-ignited engine platform with Westport's patented high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) fuel system and other proprietary natural gas technologies to offer alternative-fueled engines that perform like diesels.

The natural gas and propane engines use a catalytic converter to comply with ‘04 emission rules.

DETROIT DIESEL

Series 60

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 12.7L/14L

Horsepower range: 380-455/ 455-515

Peak torque range: 1350-1550 lb.-ft./ 1450-1650 lb.-ft.

Featuring the fifth generation of Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC V), both Series 60 engines are intended for heavy-duty on-highway applications that value light weight, fuel efficiency and performance. In recent years, the inline-6 has also moved into construction and other off-highway applications,

Like all heavy-duty diesels, the Series 60 underwent a major redesign to meet new emissions requirements in late 2002, adopting cooled EGR and a variable geometry turbocharger. Other related changes included a switch to a monotherm, or one-piece piston design, revised geartrain components for the overhead cam, and new injectors.

The two Series 60 diesels offer a total of 27 different power ratings, including dual power rating models. With a peak torque of up to 1650 lb.-ft., torque curves are relatively flat, providing low rpm grunt with little fall-off as engine speed increases. The DDEC system also allows Series 60 engines to be easily reprogrammed to different power ratings to accommodate changing operational conditions or to increase resale value. In addition, the electronics provide cruise control, idle shutdown, advanced engine protection and other advanced features as standard.

MBE 904/924

Configuration: Inline 4

Displacement: 4.3L/4.8L

Horsepower: 170/190

Peak torque: 420 lb.-ft/ 520 lb.-ft.

With two displacements, the Mercedes Benz 4-cyl. diesel is offered in Freightliner LLC's walk-in van chassis and school buses, as well as the Dodge and Freightliner Sprinter vans.

Mechanical features include three valves per cylinder, five main bearings, a gear-driven air compressor, cooled EGR and air-to-air charge cooling with a wastegated turbocharger for good low rpm performance. High-pressure unit fuel injectors are controlled by an advanced electronic system that also provides engine protection and idle shutdown, as well as a data logger for engine diagnostics and a maintenance monitor.

MBE 906/926

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 6.47L/7.2L

Horsepower range: 190-260/ 250-330

Peak torque range: 520-700 lb.-ft./ 800-1000 lb.-ft.

Offered in Freightliner Truck and Sterling medium-duty trucks, this Mercedes-Benz inline-6 is best suited for a variety of vocational applications, including P&D, expedited freight, beverage distribution, utility service, refuse and emergency service. In keeping with its vocational focus, it offers a high-torque rise and accommodates a front engine PTO.

Redesigned to meet 2004 emissions requirements, the fuel system uses electronically controlled unit injectors combined with a cooled EGR system and a wastegated turbocharger. It breathes through two intake valves and one exhaust valve. An optional compression brake adds a fourth valve and is designed to work in conjunction with a standard exhaust brake.

Other mechanical features for the MBE 906/926 include seven main bearings, a gear driven air compressor and a choice of electronically controlled and viscous fan drives. The electronic control system also provides standard timed idle shutdown and engine protection, as well as remote PTO throttle control and data logging for fuel consumption and diagnostics.

MBE 4000

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 12.8L

Horsepower range: 350-450

Peak torque range: 1350-1550 lb.-ft.

The heavy-duty MBE 4000 is a lightweight, high-torque-rise engine targeted at regional distribution, vocational and bulk-hauling applications. It is available in Freightliner's three Class 8 trucks — the FL 112, Columbia and Century S/T — as well as Sterling A and L models, and the Western Star 4900.

The engine uses cooled EGR, air-to-air charge cooling with a matched turbocharger and high-pressure electronically controlled unit injectors to meet 2004 emissions requirements. Like Detroit Diesel's other heavy-duty diesel, it also features DDEC advanced electronic controls offering a wide variety of customizable performance features including cruise control, engine fan braking, timed idle shutdown and data logging.

HINO

J05D-TA

Configuration: 4 cylinders

Displacement: 5L

Horsepower: 175

Peak torque: 347 lb.-ft.

Hino Motor Sales USA says its J05D-TA diesel engine is designed primarily for Class 4 & 5 trucks operating in city street/highly urbanized environments. The engine is optimized for durability, performance and fuel economy.

When basic engineering for this platform began in the early 1990s, it was designed to be flexible enough so it could adapt to any future changes in emissions rules, such as changes that have in fact taken place for medium-duty engines in 2004.

J08E-TA/TB

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 8L

Horsepower: 220-260

Peak torque: 520-585 lb.-ft.

The J08E-TA and TB engines are geared for larger-capacity medium-duty trucks in the Class 6 & 7 range. First brought to the U.S. market in 1998, the engines were designed with flexibility built in so they could meet future emissions changes without sacrificing too much fuel efficiency.

INTERNATIONAL

V

Configuration: V6 & V8

Displacement: 275, 363, 365 cu. in./4.5-6L

Horsepower: 175-325

Peak torque: 440-620 lb.-ft.

International Truck and Engine Corp.'s V-family diesel engines includes the PowerStroke used exclusively by Ford Motor Co.'s F-Series trucks, as well as the new VT 275, which is not yet in production.

Cooled EGR, combined with an Electronic Variable Response Turbocharger (EVRT) and Electro-Hydraulic Generation Two (G2) fuel used on the V6 engines, enables the V-family to stay emissions-compliant while minimizing fuel economy losses, says International.

I-6

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 466-530 cu. in./7.6-8.7L

Horsepower: 175-330

Peak torque: 460-1150 lb.-ft.

International touts several advances to its I-6 family of engines, which includes the DT 466, DT 530, and HT 570 models. The company's EVRT turbocharger helps optimize the power boost across the entire engine operating range, while the G2 fuel system improves fuel efficiency and reduces emissions. The I-6 uses cooled EGR to meet current and upcoming emissions standards.

For additional braking power, International offers the Diamond Logic exhaust brake as an option on all I-6 engines.

ISUZU/GM

Duramax 6600

Configuration: V-8

Displacement: 6.6L

Horsepower range: 210-300

Peak torque: 520 lb.-ft.

Combining light weight and high output, the Duramax 6600 is the diesel option for the Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra full-size pickups. As the General Motors commercial truck line moves up to Class 4 and 5, the V-8 can also be ordered in the Chevy Kodiak C4500 and C5500 chassis, as well as the GMC TopKick C4500 and C5500.

An all-new design from Isuzu, the Duramax 6600 features intercooled turbocharging, an electronically controlled fuel system and high-pressure direct fuel injection via a common rail. The V-8 block is cast iron and it carries an aluminum head with four valves per cylinder.

Duramax 7800

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 7.8L

Horsepower range: 200-300

Peak torque range: 520-860 lb.-ft.

The medium-duty engine for Isuzu, Chevrolet and GMC, the Duramax 7800 is the General Motors workhorse for both low-cab forward and conventional Class 6-8 models. It powers the Chevrolet/ GMC tilt-cab T-Series, which stretches from the Class 6 T6500 all the way up to the Class 8 T8500 Tandem, as well as the corresponding Isuzu models — the FTR, FVR FXR and FXR Tandem. It's also an option with the conventional GMC TopKick and Chevrolet Kodiak C6500 through C8500 models.

Built by Isuzu, the 7.8L diesel features intercooled turbocharging, high-pressure direct fuel injection and four valves per cylinder.

4HK1-TC

Configuration: Inline 4

Displacement: 5.2L

Horsepower: 190

Peak torque: 387 lb.-ft.

The Isuzu-built 4HK1-TC powers General Motors' Class 3 through 5 cabover models, which are comprised of the Chevrolet and GMC W-Series and Isuzu N-Series.

Replacing a smaller 4.75L diesel, the new 5.2L boosts power in those models by 15 to 48 hp. and peak torque by 40 to 112 lb.-ft. It features an overhead cam with four valves per cylinder, turbocharging, intercooling and electronically controlled high-pressure direct fuel injection.

MACK

ASET AI Series

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 728 cu. in./12.1L)

Horsepower range: 300-460

Peak torque range: 1200-1560 lb.-ft.

Available in both Maxidyne and Econodyne models, Mack says its ASET (Application Specific Engine Technology) AI Series engines are designed “specifically to give drivers the power and performance to conquer tough vocational jobs.”

The company says the engine uses internal EGR to reduce emissions and improve efficiency. According to Mack, the “breakthrough design” of the ASET AI allows “exhaust gas to be recalculated with fresh, cooler air to provide responsive power and meet stringent NOx levels.”

ASET AC Series

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 728 cu. in./12.1L)

Horsepower range: 310-460

Peak torque range: 1360-1660 lb.-ft.

Available in both Econodyne and MaxiCruise models, the Mack ASET AC engines are designed for highway applications.

Their design combines two innovative technologies, according to Mack. The first is cooled EGR, which the company says “dramatically reduces” nitrogen oxide (NOx) for cleaner emissions. The second is Variable Geometry Turbocharger, which Mack says delivers the “power, torque and response time drivers demand.”

MITSUBISHI FUSO

4M50

Configuration: Inline 4

Displacement: 299 cu. in./4.9L

Horsepower range: 147-175

Peak torque range: 347-391 lb.-ft.

The Mitsubishi Fuso 4M50 diesel is the sole powerplant available in Mitsubishi Fuso's FE120. FE145, FE180 and FG140 medium-duty Class 3-5 trucks.

These turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines feature a double-overhead cam design, four valves per cylinder and dual balance shafts. Horsepower and torque ratings are determined by truck model and transmission choice, according to the manufacturer.

6M60

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 460cu. in./7.5L

Horsepower range: 243-275

Peak torque range: 514-593 lb.-ft.

The Mitsubishi Fuso 6M60 diesel is the 6-cyl. counterpart to the maker's 4M50 engine. The 6M60 is the only powerplant offered in Mitsubishi Fuso's medium-duty Class 6-7 FK200, FM260 and FM330 models. It is a single overhead-cam design and is turbocharged and intercooled with four valves per cylinder. Horsepower and torque ratings are determined by truck model and transmission choice.

VOLVO

VED12

Configuration: Inline 6

Displacement: 740 cu. in./12.1L)

Horsepower range: 365-465

Peak torque range: 1350-1650 lb.-ft

Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. says its Volvo VED12 diesel engines were engineered so that its VN Series Class 8 highway tractors are the “only trucks integrated with EPA 02-compliant engines.”

According to the OEM, when paired with the Volvo VN tractor, the Volvo VED12 diesel engine “will not only meet the new [EPA ‘02] emissions requirements, but also deliver industry-leading fuel economy and performance.”

Volvo also states that its own testing has shown that “in certain applications, operators of the VN should experience only a 0% to 2% decrease in fuel economy” with the VED12 engine compared to pre-'02 diesel engines.